Collection of technical terms for thermal power ch

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Electrochemical process terminology collection

1. Active carbon activated carbon

is a kind of charcoal powder with extremely fine particle size, which is fired from wood sawdust or coconut shell. Because it has a huge surface area, it can have a high degree of adsorption and can adsorb a large amount of organic matter, so it is called activated carbon. It is often used for gas deodorization, liquid decolorization, or organic pollution removal of electroplating bath solution. Commodities include scattered fine powder or sealed canned carbon particles, etc

2. Addition agent additives

process additives that improve product properties, such as gloss agents or leveling agents required for electroplating

3. Amp hour

is the unit of current, that is, the amount of electricity accumulated by 1 ampere current for 1 hour. The organic additives added to the plating solution are often used as a tool for consumption monitoring

4. Anion cation (anion)

negatively charged ion groups or exciton groups swimming towards the anode in the plating solution (or other electrolyte)

5. Anode sludge anode slime

when electroplating is carried out, there are often a few insoluble small impurities in the plating solution due to the impure anode. If they are dispersed, they will be induced by the electric field and swim to the cathode, resulting in rough coating. Therefore, anode bag should be installed to block it, so as not to affect the coating quality. In addition, when crude copper is electrolytic purified, platinum group precious metals are often found in the anode mud produced by the crude copper anode, which can also extract various precious elements

6. Anode anode

is the source of coating metal in the electroplating process, and it is also used as the positive pole for power on. Generally, anodes are divided into soluble anodes and insoluble anodes. The adjective of this word is anodic. For example, anodic cleaning is to place the working object on the anode of the electrolyte and use its dissolution and the oxygen bubble generated at the same time to carry out organic friction cleaning, which is called anodic cleaning

7. Anodizing

refers to putting the metal body on the anode in the electrolytic cell solution for surface treatment, which is just opposite to the electrolytic treatment of general electroplating treatment placed on the cathode. This word can also be called anodise treatment. For example, aluminum can be anodized, and a protective film of crystalline aluminum oxide is formed on the surface

8. Aspect ratio

in the circuit board industry, it specially refers to the ratio of the length and diameter of the through hole itself, that is, the ratio of the plate thickness to the hole diameter. In terms of domestic manufacturing standards, those with an aspect ratio of more than 4/1 are deep holes with high longitudinal ratio, and their drilling and plating through holes are difficult

9. Carrier carrier

in the nickel plating process, two kinds of organic gloss agents are often added to the bath solution. The first one is called primary brightener or carrier brightener, which is mostly sulfonates for transportation. The second kind is truly luminous secondary brightener, which is dominated by unsaturated double bond or triple bond organics. The former can carry out the work of transportation and distribution, so that there are no obstacles within 300mm around the coating instrument, which can be fully and evenly illuminated. This primary carrier gloss agent has the function of leveling the coating itself, and also has the effect of semi gloss on the plated surface. It is often used for nickel plating of circuit board gold fingers

10. The cathode of cathode

is the pole that accepts the growth of metal coating in the electroplating bath, and the circuit board is also placed on the cathode during various electroplating wet processing

11. Cation negative drift, cation

in the electrolyte aqueous solution composed of positively and negatively charged ions, its positively charged simple ions, or clusters of large drift groups, all have a tendency to swim towards the cathode, which is called cation

12. Current density

refers to the current intensity (ampere) applied on the unit area of its anode and cathode in electroplating or similar wet electrolytic treatment. Assuming that the cathode area is 10 ft2 and the applied current is 300 a, the cathode current density should be 30 a/ft2 (ASF). Current density is an important condition of electroplating operation. Generally, if it specifically refers to anode, it should be indicated as anode current density, and if it is not specified, it mostly refers to cathode current density. The metric unit of current density is a/dm2 (ASD), and 1 ASD = 9.1 ASF. In various electroplating processes, there is a critical current density, which refers to the maximum current density that can get a good coating structure. If this value is exceeded, other unexpected reactions will occur, resulting in the degradation of the coating and the inability to use

13. Diffusion layer

is another name for the extremely thin cathode film formed on the cathode surface of the plated part in the solution during electroplating

14. Dipole dipole, bipolar

refers to a molecule or compound with polarity. The two ends of its limited distance have the same electric quantity with different electrical properties, which is called dipole moment. The torque presented between them is called dipole moment

15. Double layer electric double layer

refers to a layer of positively charged ion layer in the electroplating bath solution closest to the cathode surface, which is induced by the strong negative charge of the cathode after being detected and tested by the national third-party authoritative testing organization. The thin layer between it and the cathode is called electric double layer. The thickness of this layer is about 10 A, which is the last barrier for metal ions to be deposited on the cathode. At this time, the metal ion group will throw away all kinds of appendages (ligand, such as water molecule cn-nh3, etc.) attached in the swimming, and will absorb electrons alone and land on the cathode to deposit metal

16. Electrodeposition plating

apply direct current to the electroplating solution containing metal ions, so that metal can be plated on the cathode. This word is also synonymous with electroplating, or plating for short. The more formal rule is electrolyticplating. It is a processing technology with more experience than theory

17. Electroforming

a special electroplating technology that uses low current density and long-time operation to carry out extremely thick coatings is called electroforming. Nickel electroforming is the most common, which can be used to make reproduction film of records, three-dimensional shaped electric razor, and various other reverse molds with complex shapes

18. EMF

is the abbreviation of electromotive force, which is the driving force for electrons to flow in conductors. Its approximate terms include potential difference or voltage, etc

19. Farady Faraday

is a unit of electrostatic quantity. According to the theoretical value, the electric quantity loaded by each individual electron is 4.803 * electrostatic units, and the total static charge of each mole electron (mole, 6.023 * 102) should be 96500 coulombs (ampere. Second). In memory of Michael Farady, a British electrochemical scientist who discovered the law of electrolysis, this 96500 Coulomb electrostatic quantity is named as a Farady

20. Flash plating

refers to the extremely thin coating on the surface of the object to be plated with a high current density in a very short time, which is called flash plating, and usually refers to very thin gold plating. For example, ASTM b488 stipulates that the gold plating layer below 10 microns (? In) or 0.25 microns is called flash plating

21. Galvanic series javanni sequence

that is, the electrokinetic Series in electrochemistry textbooks. It is the order in which various metals and alloys are arranged according to their activity in a given environment. That is, taking the dissociation voltage as the criterion of arrangement, a negative value indicates that the reaction occurs naturally, and its value indicates that it is higher than the natural equilibrium state by kilovolts. A positive value indicates that the reaction is unnatural. If you want it to proceed, you must apply another voltage of kV from the outside. The Electromotive Force Series Electrode Potential, VLi Li+-3.045Rb Rb+-2.93K K+-2.924Ba Ba++-2.90Sr Sr++-2.90C Ca++-2.87Na Na+-2.715Mg Mg++-2.37Al Al3+-1.67Mn Mn++ -1.18Zn Zn++-0.762Cr Cr3+-0.74Cr Cr++-0.56Fe Fe++-0.441Cd Cd++-0.402In In3+-0.34Tl Tl+-0.336Co Co++-0.227Ni Ni++-0.250Sn Sn++-0.136Pb Pb++-0.126Fe Fe3+-0.04Pt/H2 H + 0.000sb Sb3 + 0.15bi Bi3 + 0.2as As3 + 0.3cu Cu + 0.34pt/ho- O2 + 0.40cu Cu + 0.52hg Hg2 + 0.789ag Ag + 0.799pd PD + 0.987au Au3 + 1.50au Au + 1.68 can be seen from the attached table from lithium to gold. According to the order of its activity, it can be seen that the upper one can be guanidine.The site metal is reduced to replace it from the ionic state and reduce it to metal. For example, if zinc particles are put into copper sulfate solution, the reaction that zinc is dissolved and copper is deposited occurs. If it is explained in a simple formula, it is: Zn + Cu2 + Zn2 + Cu, and its potential change is -0.726 - (+0.34) = -0.422, indicating that this reaction can occur naturally. Galvani was an Italian anatomist in the 18th century. Because he once hooked the animal body (electrolyte) with copper and iron hooks, he found the situation of generating current, so he opened another field of electrochemistry. Later generations specially named many terms related to the meaning of metal electrochemistry, such as galvanic effect, galvanic cell, galvanic corrosion, etc

22. Haring Blum cell Hein tank

was invented by haring and Blum in 1923. It is a simple small-scale test tank to test the throwing power of electroplating solution. Two plated cathodes are placed at both ends of the rectangular groove, and an anode is placed in the solution between the two cathode sheets. The distance between the anode and the cathodes at both ends is not equal, resulting in different resistance between them. Thus, the primary current distribution is also different. However, if leveller can be added to the plating solution, its current distribution can be improved (i.e. secondary current distribution), so that the weight plated on the two cathode plates is closer, that is, its distribution force has been improved, and the plating thickness everywhere on the circuit board is more uniform. The instrument used to monitor the distribution of this plating solution is the hydantoin tank

23. Hull cell Hastelloy cell

is a simple and practical test cell for electroplating solution, which was invented by Mr. ll in 1939. There are three types of 267 CC, 534 CC and 1000 CC, but 267 is the most commonly used. It can be used to test the plating conditions of various plating solutions under various current densities, so as to find the best current density for actual operation, which belongs to an empirical test. The usual practice is to place the anode with intentional wrinkle on the surface on the second side of the figure (intentional wrinkle is to make its surface area equal to the facing cathode sheet), and place the cathode on the fourth side. As for the current density and time used, which are more beneficial to the detection of rubber tensile properties than automatic measurement of gauge distance, it varies with various plating solutions, and it is necessary to constantly try to find out the standard conditions. After plating, align the lower edge of the cathode sheet with a certain current density on the Hastelloy scale to see the actual current density corresponding to the best area on the cathode sheet. Another use of Hastelloy cell is to place the anode on the first side and the cathode on the third side. You can also see the coating of the leftmost low current area on the cathode sheet

24, hydrogen overvoltage, hydrogen overvoltage

due to the reduction of H + to H2 during electroplating, it appears on the cathode surface. Take the galvanization of zinc sulfate solution as an example. The data listed in the above electrokinetic sequence table is

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